urban

Comparing the costs of different urban sanitation solutions in developing cities in Africa and Asia

A short policy brief summarising a literature review that explored the costs of various urban sanitation solutions. The review indicates that conventional sewer systems are the most expensive solution, followed by systems based on septic tanks, ventilated improved pits (VIP), urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDT), then pour-flush pit latrines. Simplified sewer systems may cost less than both conventional sewer systems and septic tank-based systems.

Date: 26 July 2018

High-quality shared toilets can reduce women’s feelings of stress due to fear of violence

This two-page policy brief summarises the findings of a qualitative research study which looked at causes and levels of psychosocial stress among users of traditional shared latrines and high-quality shared toilets in informal settlements in Mozambique’s capital city, Maputo. In many slum communities in Africa and Asia, many people live in rental compounds in small rooms that do not have space for private toilets. Such people necessarily rely on shared sanitation facilities.

Date: 26 July 2018
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A tale of clean cities: insights for planning urban sanitation from Ghana, India and the Philippines

Uncontrolled urbanisation and proliferation of slums makes development of urban sanitation a big challenge. To contribute to the efforts towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of universal access to sanitation, the research A tale of clean cities aimed to learn from three cities that are performing well in sanitation: Kumasi, Ghana; San Fernando, the Philippines; and Visakhapatnam, India.

Date: 30 January 2017
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Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya

The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government.

Date: 13 December 2016
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Overflowing cities The State of the World’s Toilets 2016

Human beings are now largely an urban species: for the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population (54%, or 3.9 billion people) lives in towns, cities and megacities. By 2050, that’s expected to rise to two-thirds. Many new urbanites, and particularly the poorest, are not moving into gleaming apartment blocks or regenerated post-industrial areas. They are arriving – or being born into – overcrowded, rapidly expanding slums. Economic growth is usually driven by urbanisation, and all industrialised countries already have a mostly urban population.

Date: 12 December 2016

Are we doing the right thing? Critical questioning for city sanitation planning

It is widely perceived that city-wide sanitation planning can enable coordinated improvements in efforts to achieve universal access to sustainable sanitation services in urban contexts in developing countries. However, it has been observed that city sanitation planning is not always effective and does not always lead to (in part or in full) sustainable and equitable outcomes. Indeed the planning process may or may not result in, or inform, implementation. This observation resonates with existing reviews and critiques of sanitation planning over the past decades (Kennedy-Walker et al.

Date: 12 December 2016

Urban community-led total sanitation: a potential way forward for co-producing sanitation services

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) has been proved to be a successful strategy for tackling the challenge of open defecation in poor rural communities across Africa and Asia. This article explores whether a similar approach can be used in peri-urban and urban areas to help co-produce sanitation facilities and services with inputs from communities, duty bearers, and other sanitation stakeholders. It is argued that an urban CLTS approach does not mean a copy and paste of tools and methods which have proved successful in the rural environment but following a set of similar principles.

Date: 6 December 2016

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