Monitoring and sustainability

Strengthening the business case for water, sanitation and hygiene: how to measure value for your business

Business is part of the solution and has a crucial role in driving the step change needed to meet Sustainable Development Goal 6 on water and sanitation. This guide aims to support evidence gathering and strengthen the business case for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), which is currently lacking.

Date: 13 September 2018

Fostering Collective Action to Improve Sanitation in Rural Cambodia

Rural Cambodia is home to the largest proportion of individuals practicing open defecation in Southeast Asia. The Cambodia Rural Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement Program (CRSHIP) has sought to address harmful sanitation practices by increasing access to improved sanitation and promoting proper hygiene in rural target areas.

Date: 13 September 2018
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UNICEF Game plan to end open defecation

The game plan outlines UNICEF’s programmatic focus and approaches in sanitation over the next four years to 2021. It will help ensure that ending open defecation receives the deliberate and sustained attention it will require to succeed: without a constant focus on the issue, there is no doubt that both the SDG objectives and UNICEF’s objectives for sanitation (as per Goal Area 4 in the Strategic Plan 2018-2021) will be jeopardised. The game plan will ensure that there is a strong emphasis on both equity and the sustainability of results, in line with UNICEF’s WASH Strategy 2016-2030.

Date: 13 September 2018

Mapping the evidence on WASH promotion in communities, schools and health facilities

Ensuring everyone has access to appropriate WASH facilities is one of the most fundamental challenges in international development. Researchers and funders need to consider carefully where there is the need for new primary evidence, such as impact evaluations, and for new evidence syntheses, such as systematic reviews. 3ie evidence gap maps are collections of evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews. They highlight where there are sufficient impact evaluations to support systematic reviews and where more studies are needed.

Date: 13 September 2018

CLTS Rapid Appraisal Protocol (C-RAP). A tool for rapid assessment of the practice of CLTS at scale

CLTS rapid Appraisal Protocol (CRAP) is a diagnostic tool to review the quality and effectiveness of CLTS programming in a country. The success of CLTS in triggering communities for collective behaviour change has been a global phenomenon. However achieving scale in a planned, coordinated and consistent manner to move beyond ODF villages towards generating ODF districts, regions and nations has been challenging. Furthermore, wide variations have been found in the quality of implementation, rolling out and outcomes across different countries.

Date: 13 September 2018

Sustainability of ODF achievements and safely managed sanitation in West and Central Africa

At the recent West and Central Africa Regional Rural Sanitation workshop, organised by the CLTS Knowledge Hub, in Saly, Senegal 25-28 June 2018, sanitation practitioners from 15 countries met to discuss regional and national sanitation challenges, to identify lessons learned and share best practices. Many participants identified the different components of the sustainability of open defecation free (ODF) achievements and links with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically with the ‘safely managed sanitation’ target 6.2, as significant challenges.

Urban sanitation coverage and environmental fecal contamination: Links between the household and public environments of Accra, Ghana

Exposure to faecal contamination in public areas, especially in dense, urban environments, may significantly contribute to gastrointestinal infection risk. This study examined associations between sanitation and faecal contamination in public environments in four low-income neighbourhoods in Accra, Ghana. Soil and open drain samples were tested for E. coli, adenovirus, and norovirus. Sanitation facilities in surveyed households were categorised by onsite faecal sludge containment (“contained” vs. “uncontained”) using previous Joint Monitoring Program infrastructure guidelines.

Date: 26 July 2018
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Reflections on the West and Central Africa Regional Rural Sanitation Workshop

Flying into Dakar, Senegal, for the start of the four day West and Central Africa Regional Rural Sanitation Workshop, hosted by the CLTS Knowledge Hub, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), I was struck by the arid landscape that we flew over. The vast vista was dominated by dry red soils and parched vegetation; a timely reminder of the water scarcity and food security problems faced by many countries in West and Central Africa (despite an abundance of human and natural resources).

Is Community-Led Total Sanitation connected to the rebuilding of latrines? Quantitative evidence from Mozambique

To reduce open defecation, many implementers use the intervention strategies of Community-
Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), which focuses on initial latrine construction rather than ongoing latrine maintenance, repair and rebuilding. However using data from a cross-sectional survey, this article shows how physical, personal, social context and psychosocial factors from the RANAS model (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation) are associated with participation in CLTS interventions, and how these factors connect to ongoing latrine maintenance and rebuilding.

Date: 11 June 2018
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