Health

Associations between Household Latrines and the Prevalence of Diarrhea in Idiofa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study

Despite the importance of sanitation, few studies have assessed the effects of latrines on the health outcomes of children under 5 years of age. This study assessed the relations between latrine coverage and the prevalence of diarrhea in children under 4 years of age. It analyzed the baseline data obtained as part of a longitudinal survey targeting 720 households in Idiofa, Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Date: 13 July 2017

The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Sanitation aims to sequester human feces and prevent exposure to fecal pathogens. More than 2.4 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities and almost one billion practice open defecation. This study by Freeman et al undertook systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compile the most recent evidence on the impact of sanitation on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and nutritional status assessed using anthropometry.

Date: 22 June 2017

An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea

A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. This study by David A. Larsen, Thomas Grisham, Erik Slawsky and Lutchmie Narine conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access.

Date: 22 June 2017

Disease externalities and net nutrition: Evidence from changes in sanitation and child height in Cambodia, 2005–2010

Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years.

Date: 13 December 2016
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Analysis of CLTS and its impacts on groundwater and health hygiene

This study was carried out to determine the magnitude to which the CLTS approach leads to improved sanitation and its potential threats to groundwater quality and health of people. A comparative study was carried out between eight CLTS and non CLTS villages to measure the outcomes of CLTS approach. Water samples were collected to assess the level of contamination in groundwater sources near pits in villages where CLTS approach was adopted. Semi structured interviews, focused group discussions (FGDs) and transit walks were used for data collection.

Date: 13 December 2016
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Tough Shit: What's the link between diarrhoea and bonded labour?

When we think of bonded labour – the most widespread form of modern slavery - we don't instantly think of diarrhoea, or any health issue for that matter. However, the research that IDS is carrying out on bonded labour in India and Nepal, suggests that diarrhoea and ill-health, poverty, loans and bonded labour are all interlinked.

Association of Community Led Total Sanitation to Reduced Household Morbidity in Nyando District

The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of CLTS to the reduced household morbidity in Nyando District. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the diarrhoea prevalence, knowledge, uptake and practices on CLTS; Chi-square test was used to compare proportions between control and intervention sites.
Date: 24 October 2016
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The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene on Key Health and Social Outcomes: Review of Evidence

This evidence paper looks at 10 areas identified collaboratively with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) on which WASH can plausibly have a strong impact: diarrhoea, nutrition, complementary food hygiene, female psychosocial stress, violence, maternal and newborn health, menstrual hygiene management, school attendance, oral vaccine performance, and neglected tropical diseases. Together, these areas cover the most significant sector outcomes associated with the distinct life course phases that UNICEF seeks to help to address through its WASH activities.

Date: 13 October 2016

Effect of eliminating open defecation on diarrhoeal morbidity: an ecological study of Nyando and Nambale sub-counties, Kenya

Defecating in the open predisposes people to soil transmitted helminthes and diarrhoeal diseases. An estimated 5.6 million Kenyans defecate in the open. Kenya launched a program to eradicate open defecation by 2013 in the rural areas. By end of 2013, only two sub-counties had eliminated open defecation. These are Nambale and Nyando. The study looked at the impact of eradicating open defecation on diarrhea prevalence among children in these two sub-counties.
Date: 9 September 2016
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The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial

Child stunting and anemia are intractable public health problems in developing countries and have profound short- and long-term consequences. The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is motivated by the premise that environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a major underlying cause of both stunting and anemia, that chronic inflammation is the central characteristic of EED mediating these adverse effects, and that EED is primarily caused by high fecal ingestion due to living in conditions of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH).

Date: 8 December 2015
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