behaviour change

The cultural politics of shit: class, gender and public space in India

In this article Assa Doron and Ira Raja seek to interrogate the cultural, political and economic conditions that generate the crisis of sanitation in India, with its severe implications for the poor and the marginalized. The key question they ask is how to interpret and explain the spectre of ‘open defecation’ in India's countryside and its booming urban centres. The discussion is divided into three parts. Part one examines the cultural interpretation of ‘shitting’ as symbolic action underpinned by ideas of purity, pollution and ‘the body politic’.

Date: 12 September 2016
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PhATS Technical Note: Demand Creation in Communities

Across Typhoon Yolanda-affected areas, the Philippines Department of Health (DoH) and Department of Education (DepEd), The League of Mayors and 46 LGUs are working in tandem with UNICEF and its 12 implementing NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) Partners to improve access to and use of sustainable sanitation through a strategy called the Philippines Approach To Total Sanitation (PhATS).

Date: 11 August 2016
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Using Social Norms Theory to Strengthen CLTS in Southern Madagascar

This Field Note focuses on the southern region of Madagascar and documents how the region is transitioning from a 100% open defecation to a 100% ODF (Open Defecation Free) region. The southern region is one of the poorest regions in the country and characterized by restrictive, traditional beliefs as well as a rigid hierarchy of power and influence, which contribute towards the failure of development projects in this region.

Date: 2 August 2016
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Determinants of Usage of Communal Sanitation Facilities in Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya

This paper draws on SHARE PhD Student Sheillah Simiyu's research into urban sanitation in Kenya. Communal sanitation facilities in space-stricken informal settlements have often been deemed the most feasible solution for increasing access to and use of sanitation facilities in these settings. However, to date little is known about their use and effectiveness, particularly in Africa’s informal settlements. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the determinants of use of communal sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu.

Date: 16 March 2016
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Why we should not set 'targets' for ODF

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is a revamped programme on sanitation launched by the H’ble Prime Minister, with a clear focus on outcomes. The programme was drafted carefully, looking at learnings from past sanitation programmes in the rural sector. Despite many programmes, the rural sanitation coverage rate did not get much success, for varied reasons. The primary reason was inability to implement programme in a pure ‘demand driven’ way, and lack of capacities to trigger behavioural change, required for this demand generation.

Norms, Knowledge and Usage

The partial or total non-use of toilets, with some or all in a household defecating in the open, is a growing concern. Although all households may have a toilet, communities cannot remain open defecation free unless they are always used by everyone. This is not just an issue of maintenance and accessibility but also of social norms, mind-sets, and cultural preferences. The problem is widespread but most evident in India. This issue of Frontiers of CLTS asks how serious the problem is, why it occurs, what can be done about it, and what more needs to be known.

Date: 8 January 2016

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