About approach

Mapping the evidence on WASH promotion in communities, schools and health facilities

Ensuring everyone has access to appropriate WASH facilities is one of the most fundamental challenges in international development. Researchers and funders need to consider carefully where there is the need for new primary evidence, such as impact evaluations, and for new evidence syntheses, such as systematic reviews. 3ie evidence gap maps are collections of evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews. They highlight where there are sufficient impact evaluations to support systematic reviews and where more studies are needed.

Date: 13 September 2018

CLTS Rapid Appraisal Protocol (C-RAP). A tool for rapid assessment of the practice of CLTS at scale

CLTS rapid Appraisal Protocol (CRAP) is a diagnostic tool to review the quality and effectiveness of CLTS programming in a country. The success of CLTS in triggering communities for collective behaviour change has been a global phenomenon. However achieving scale in a planned, coordinated and consistent manner to move beyond ODF villages towards generating ODF districts, regions and nations has been challenging. Furthermore, wide variations have been found in the quality of implementation, rolling out and outcomes across different countries.

Date: 13 September 2018

Urban Sanitation Research Initiative 2017-2020: Driving sector change in urban sanitation

The Urban Sanitation Research Initiative is a research programme designed to drive pro-poor sector change in urban sanitation in Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya and globally. It is led by World Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) in collaboration with key in-country partners, and core-funded by UK aid from the UK government to run from 2017–2020.

Date: 26 July 2018

Evaluation of the SOPO School Handwashing Promotion Programme: Nyanza and Rift Valley Provinces, Kenya

Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection are leading causes of death in Kenyan children (WHO, 2010). In order to move toward Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce childhood mortality, it is critical to address behaviours that can reduce these infections, eg handwashing with soap. The Kenyan Strategic Plan recommended targeting handwashing programmes to school children because they may be more amenable to behaviour change than adults and because they can act as advocates for behaviour change in their families and communities.
Date: 20 July 2015

Live streaming of seminar with Kamal Kar: The Potential of CLTS in achieving an Open Defecation Free World

On the 20th May 2014, Kamal Kar, the innovator of CLTS, will be giving a seminar at IDS. He will speak about the potential of the CLTS approach in achieving the sanitation MDG with a special focus on Africa. He will highlight the progress made by nations in running the last mile until December 2015 and will also discuss second and third generation challenges of CLTS such as sustainability, waste containment and the politics of scaling up. For the benefit of those who are not very conversant with the CLTS approach, he will also focus on its key principles and methodology.

Behaviour change in sanitation: synopsis from the 13th SanCop meeting (November 2013)

The 13th meeting of the UK’s Sanitation Community of Practice was held on Wednesday 20th November 2013 at Cranfield University. The rationale for the meeting is to draw upon DFID’s 2013 WASH evidence paper, which argues that behaviour change for hygiene and sanitation, especially at scale, is a key evidence gap in the sector. The aims of the day were as follows:

Date: 26 February 2014

"Shit should have its own house": Impressions from a CLTS training workshop in Calai, Angola

David Kawika leads shit mapping, Angola

In August 2013. SAREP (USAID’s Southern Africa Regional Environmental Program) organized a one week Training of CLTS Facilitators Workshop in Calai, southern Angola. The Angola workshop was the third in a series of CLTS training events held in the three countries the SAREP initiative is working in (Botswana, Namibia and Angola)..

Read more about the training in Calai, Angola in this account by Ross Kidd, Pusuletso Kidd and Gomolemo Mokete.


Date: 30 October 2013

Developing and Monitoring Protocol for the Elimination of Open Defecation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Members of Kabengele Village in Zambia decide it's time to stop open defecation

Eliminating open defecation is increasingly seen as a key health outcome, with links to reduced stunting, improved educational and positive health outcomes for children. In Sub Saharan Africa, over 35 countries are implementing some form of CLTS, ranging from TATS in Tanzania to CLTSH in Ethiopia. Since the introduction of CLTS in 2005 in the region, rapid scale-up has been achieved with suggested numbers of ODF communities in the range of 30,000 affecting over 15 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Date: 22 May 2013


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