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South Asia

Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin Budget Brief

Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-Gramin along the following parameters:
• Allocations and expenditures
• Physical progress of toilets built
• Expenditures incurred under Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities

In addition, this brief reports findings from a fund tracking survey (PAISA) conducted in December 2015. The survey covered close to 7,500 Households, spread across 10 districts in 5 states in India.
 

Date: 6 December 2016
Country: 

Can collective action strategies motivate behavior change to reduce open defecation in rural India?

The world’s remaining open defecation is increasingly concentrated in rural India. The Indian government’s efforts to reduce open defecation by providing subsidies for latrine construction have been largely unsuccessful in addressing the problem. It is now clear that behavior change must be the priority if progress on ending open defecation is to be made. While community-led strategies have proven effective in various developing country contexts, there are serious reasons to question whether similar methods can work in rural India.
Date: 24 October 2016
Country: 

The cultural politics of shit: class, gender and public space in India

In this article Assa Doron and Ira Raja seek to interrogate the cultural, political and economic conditions that generate the crisis of sanitation in India, with its severe implications for the poor and the marginalized. The key question they ask is how to interpret and explain the spectre of ‘open defecation’ in India's countryside and its booming urban centres. The discussion is divided into three parts. Part one examines the cultural interpretation of ‘shitting’ as symbolic action underpinned by ideas of purity, pollution and ‘the body politic’.

Date: 12 September 2016
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Building ODF communities through effective collaboration with government

In 1986 the Government of India launched the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), the first nationwide sanitation programme. In 2001, the CRSP was overhauled with the introduction of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC). In 2007, the TSC was renamed Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA). NBA envisages providing individual household toilets to the Below Poverty Line and Identified Above Poverty Line households and providing school and community level sanitation.

Date: 5 September 2016
Country: 

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Nine years of scale and innovation in Bangladesh

Between 2006 and 2015, the BRAC WASH programme in Bangladesh has helped over 39 million people gain access to hygienic latrines and 2.3 million people gain access to safe water across 250 sub-districts. It has helped to bring about a social transformation in areas where it works, with significant progress on rural sanitation particularly for the poorest families. Success has been achieved over a nine year period not only in the provision of hygienic household latrines, but in their use by all members of the family, and to a lesser extent in good hygiene practices such as handwashing.

Date: 5 September 2016
Country: 

People make systems, and systems people : Notes from Swachh Madhya Pradesh campaign

Ajit Tiwari is Deputy Commissioner, Swachh Bharat Mission, Madhya Pradesh. Years ago, prior to launch of Swachh Bharat, he was working as BDO of Budhni block in Sehore district, and was exposed to CLTS training. He says everyday he went to the training thinking that he would attend that day only if he found it useful- and ended up attending all five days. To convince himself of the practicality of approach, he started ‘triggering’ techniques in villages himself. Village after village began to become ODF in his district.

Beyond swachhta, with women's empowerment: Mandi Vikas Abhiyaan

Sandeep Kadam, DC Mandi, again demonstrates the criticality of district leadership for change. A district already declared open defecation free, Sandeep has not only continued the momentum, but reenergised it by activating mahila mandals (women groups) across his district. Hailing from Maharashtra, he says the philosophy behind this approach is the teaching of Mahatma Phule – ‘teach a woman, and you reform a family’.

Shit will be fought with shit

Hands of majority of motivators in Fatehgarh Saheb rise to a question – ‘how many of you have taken shit in your hands?’
It is surprising. Hands rise without hesitation, with pride though. One would expect hands rise to holding a sweet in hand, their child in arms, or a precious thing, may be. But shit?
Asked don’t they feel the disgust, they reply in negative. They say that this way, they are able to explain most convincingly the relation between shit, flies and food. A sarpanch (village headman) seconds this – he says people get moved by this the most.

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