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South Asia

SQUAT Research Brief No. 1: Ending open defecation requires changing minds

The SQUAT survey was a survey of Sanitation Quality, Use, Access and Trends in rural north India. From December 2013 to April 2014 over 3,200 rural households were asked about their sanitation behaviour and beliefs. Over 300 villages in 13 districts of Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh were visited by the researchers and data was collected on the defecation behaviour of 22,787 people.
Date: 8 July 2014
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The battle for toilets and minds

Sanitation experts have long known that latrine use is what is needed, and that this is not always implied by mere latrine construction in rural India. The SQUAT (Sanitation Quality Use Access and Trends) survey conducted by the Research Institute for Compassionate Economics (rice) shows clearly that it's behaviour change not hardware that's the issue. 

Read more in The Hindu, 9th June2014

Impact of Indian Total Sanitation Campaign on Latrine Coverage and Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa Three Years following Programme Implementation

Article by Sharmani Barnard, Parimita Routray, Fiona Majorin, Rachel Peletz, Sophie Boisson, Antara Sinha, Thomas Clasen in PLoS ONE 8(8): e71438. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071438 based on research on the impact of the Indian Government's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) on latrine coverage and use among 20 villages in Orissa. 

Date: 28 April 2014
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Challenges of behaviour change in rural north India

Despite large government and NGO programs, despite substantially increased public spending on sanitation, and despite sustained economic growth, open defecation is declining very, very slowly in rural “Hindi heartland” north India. Widespread resistance to using simple latrines in the rural north Indian plains states is a human development crisis and a serious puzzle: this is exactly the place on earth where open defecation is most common and where high population density most raises the human and economic costs of open defecation.

Date: 28 March 2014
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