East and Southern Africa

Good governance for sustainable WASH Programming: lessons from two USAID-funded projects in Uganda

The USAID/Uganda Strengthening Decentralisation for Sustainability (SDS) Program's WASH component and the Northern Uganda Development of Enhanced Local Governance, Infrastructure and Livelihoods (NUDEILS) Program brough innovative approaches to supplying WASH services and infrastructure through existing Distric Local Governmnet systems in Southwestern and Northern Uganda respectively. The SDS Program's WASH component focused on increasing the flow of resources, both human and financial, into existing District programs.

Date: 5 September 2016
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CLTS plus: making CLTS ever more inclusive

If CLTS is to eliminate open defecation, issues of disability inclusion must be fully addressed. Research in Malawi aimed to discover if WASH practitioners, after a short training, could implement CLTS in a more inclusive way, and whether this made a difference to disabled peple in the community in terms of access to sanitation and hygiene faclities. After a three-day training, CLTS implementers designed and implemented a CLTS+ Action Plan, in which additional triggering activities were introduced, and more attention paid to households with disabled and older people post-triggering.

Date: 5 September 2016
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Who is managing the post-ODF process in the community? A case study from Nambale

Post-ODF follow up is central to sustaining ODF status, and needs to be integrated into CLTS programming from the outset. This paper explores who is to carry out these activities and how they might be motivated and financed. It argues for the importance of identifying existing administrative and social structures prior to implementation.

Date: 5 September 2016
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Follow up MANDONA: Guidelines for Practitioners

Follow-up MANDONA (FUM) is an action-oriented approach to accelerate the end of open defecation after the initial CLTS triggering session. Based on CLTS principles, FUM involves a series of facilitated sessions with the entire community to reinforce behaviour change and collectively undertake small, immediate and doable actions to become ODF in the shortest time possible.

The Global Sanitation Fund in Madagascar has developed this field guide for accelerating and sustaining open defecation free communities through CLTS.

Date: 31 August 2016
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Building capacity for water, sanitation, and hygiene programming: Training evaluation theory applied to CLTS management training in Kenya

Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor.

Date: 18 August 2016
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Using practical triggering tools to promote handwashing in Madagascar

Studies show that handwashing with soap can reduce the risk of contracting diarrhoea by up to 47%. In Fort Dauphin, a small town in the South East of Madagascar, poor hygiene practices and widespread open defecation has had serious consequences for a population struggling with diarrhoea and malnutrition. Poverty and poor infrastructure means that the overwhelming majority of residents do not have in-house water connections. Water must bought by the bucket, at public water points throughout the town. With water such a scarce resource, handwashing is not always seen as a primary concern.

Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. UNC used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation.

Date: 3 August 2016
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Sustainability of ODF Practices in Kenya

Since the launch of the ODF campaign in 2011 UNICEF has supported the Ministry of Health to scale up sanitation activities with CLTS as its core strategy. The Department of  Environmental Health (DEHS) within the ministry has demonstrated strong leadership and is a clear champion for sanitation and hygiene. Sanitation services have been devolved to the county government under the new constitution (2010) and CLTS implementation is now being led by the County Health Teams.

Date: 2 August 2016
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Using Social Norms Theory to Strengthen CLTS in Southern Madagascar

This Field Note focuses on the southern region of Madagascar and documents how the region is transitioning from a 100% open defecation to a 100% ODF (Open Defecation Free) region. The southern region is one of the poorest regions in the country and characterized by restrictive, traditional beliefs as well as a rigid hierarchy of power and influence, which contribute towards the failure of development projects in this region.

Date: 2 August 2016
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Mobile Phone-Based Hygiene and Sanitation Promotion in Somalia

Somalia continues to experience one of the most complex humanitarian crises in the world and is one of the most restrictive and insecure environments for humanitarian actors. There is little evidence to show that approaches conventionally used in humanitarian settings, focused on the delivery of hygiene items and mass communication of messages, have resulted in consistent behaviour change.

Date: 2 August 2016
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