urban

Key resource: The Addis Agreement: Using CLTS in urban and peri-urban areas

In June 2016, the CLTS Knowledge Hub convened a workshop on 'Using a CLTS approach in peri-urban and urban environments’ in Addis Ababa. The discussions and shared experiences from the workshop are captured in the Addis Agreement which contains important stages of an urban CLTS process. Each stage is explained, examples provided and advice given. The intention is not a guidebook but a set of ideas and considerations for those interested in embarking on a similar approach.
Date: 8 August 2016

Urban Sanitation Research Initiative 2017-2020: Driving sector change in urban sanitation

The Urban Sanitation Research Initiative is a research programme designed to drive pro-poor sector change in urban sanitation in Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya and globally. It is led by World Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) in collaboration with key in-country partners, and core-funded by UK aid from the UK government to run from 2017–2020.

Date: 26 July 2018
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Urban sanitation coverage and environmental fecal contamination: Links between the household and public environments of Accra, Ghana

Exposure to faecal contamination in public areas, especially in dense, urban environments, may significantly contribute to gastrointestinal infection risk. This study examined associations between sanitation and faecal contamination in public environments in four low-income neighbourhoods in Accra, Ghana. Soil and open drain samples were tested for E. coli, adenovirus, and norovirus. Sanitation facilities in surveyed households were categorised by onsite faecal sludge containment (“contained” vs. “uncontained”) using previous Joint Monitoring Program infrastructure guidelines.

Date: 26 July 2018
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Comparing the costs of different urban sanitation solutions in developing cities in Africa and Asia

A short policy brief summarising a literature review that explored the costs of various urban sanitation solutions. The review indicates that conventional sewer systems are the most expensive solution, followed by systems based on septic tanks, ventilated improved pits (VIP), urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDT), then pour-flush pit latrines. Simplified sewer systems may cost less than both conventional sewer systems and septic tank-based systems.

Date: 26 July 2018

High-quality shared toilets can reduce women’s feelings of stress due to fear of violence

This two-page policy brief summarises the findings of a qualitative research study which looked at causes and levels of psychosocial stress among users of traditional shared latrines and high-quality shared toilets in informal settlements in Mozambique’s capital city, Maputo. In many slum communities in Africa and Asia, many people live in rental compounds in small rooms that do not have space for private toilets. Such people necessarily rely on shared sanitation facilities.

Date: 26 July 2018
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A tale of clean cities: insights for planning urban sanitation from Ghana, India and the Philippines

Uncontrolled urbanisation and proliferation of slums makes development of urban sanitation a big challenge. To contribute to the efforts towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of universal access to sanitation, the research A tale of clean cities aimed to learn from three cities that are performing well in sanitation: Kumasi, Ghana; San Fernando, the Philippines; and Visakhapatnam, India.

Date: 30 January 2017
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Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya

The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government.

Date: 13 December 2016
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Overflowing cities The State of the World’s Toilets 2016

Human beings are now largely an urban species: for the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population (54%, or 3.9 billion people) lives in towns, cities and megacities. By 2050, that’s expected to rise to two-thirds. Many new urbanites, and particularly the poorest, are not moving into gleaming apartment blocks or regenerated post-industrial areas. They are arriving – or being born into – overcrowded, rapidly expanding slums. Economic growth is usually driven by urbanisation, and all industrialised countries already have a mostly urban population.

Date: 12 December 2016

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