Mass Behaviour Change Campaigns: what works and what doesn't

The promotion of hygienic behaviour – and particularly handwashing with soap – is one of the most cost-effective health interventions. Yet, despite bringing some of the highest public health returns on investments, hygiene is neglected – in public health interventions, in national and global health policy priorities, and in national and global monitoring frameworks.

Date: 23 November 2017

Promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low-and middle-income countries

This report by 3ie summarises a systematic review by De Buck and colleagues that examines which promotional approaches are effective in changing handwashing and sanitation behaviour and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such interventions. The study is the first mixed methods systematic review of behaviour change in sanitation and hygiene, drawing on quantitative and qualitative evidence. It shows that CLTS, in comparison with approaches like social marketing and health messaging, is most effective in improving OD behaviour and latrine use.

Date: 28 September 2017

Norms, nudges, or addiction? Understanding drivers for handwashing behavior change.

Handwashing with soap is one of the most effective ways to prevent diseases, but behavior change to increase handwashing remains a challenge. On September 12, 2017, the Global Handwashing Partnership and USAID hosted a webinar that focused on behavior change approaches for handwashing with soap. The webinar gave participants ideas and perspectives to use on Global Handwashing Day and throughout the year.

Date: 27 September 2017

SOAPEN: could this soap crayon help prevent child deaths?

According to UNICEF, diarrhea is deadly for 1.5 million children under the age of 5 every year. Sanitation, handwashing and hygiene are crucial elements in preventing these deaths. But how can children get into the habit of washing their hands? This is exactly the problem that a group of Indian industrial designers from the Parson’s School of Design in New York City sought to solve when they designed SoaPen, a colored marker with ink that turns into soapy lather.


Habit Formation and Rational Addiction: A Field Experiment in Handwashing

Regular handwashing with soap is believed to have substantial impacts on child health in the developing world. Most handwashing campaigns have failed, however, to establish and maintain a regular practice of handwashing. Motivated by scholarship that suggests handwashing is habitual, This study designed, implemented and analyzed a randomized field experiment aimed to test the main predictions of the rational addiction model. To reliably measure handwashing, the researchers developed and produced a novel soap dispenser, within which a time-stamped sensor is embedded.

Date: 27 July 2017

Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior

In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010–2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water.

Date: 27 June 2017

Progress on CLTSH: Findings from a national review of rural sanitation in Ethiopia

A 2015-16 survey of CLTSH across 8 Regions of Ethiopia has found that open defecation continues to reduce across the country, now estimated at 32%. Much of this coverage remains ‘unimproved’ or basic, and the next big challenge, whilst continuing to accelerate progress, is converting this coverage to ‘improved’ or safely managed sanitation.
Whilst the implementation of CLTSH remains strong, the study findings summarised in this UNICEF WASH Learning Note suggest there are some key implementation adjustments which could improve the uptake of improved sanitation.

Date: 5 January 2017

Analysis of CLTS and its impacts on groundwater and health hygiene

This study was carried out to determine the magnitude to which the CLTS approach leads to improved sanitation and its potential threats to groundwater quality and health of people. A comparative study was carried out between eight CLTS and non CLTS villages to measure the outcomes of CLTS approach. Water samples were collected to assess the level of contamination in groundwater sources near pits in villages where CLTS approach was adopted. Semi structured interviews, focused group discussions (FGDs) and transit walks were used for data collection.

Date: 13 December 2016


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