Children and schools

Key resource: Re-framing Undernutrition: Faecally-Transmitted Infections and the 5 As (IDS Working Paper 450)

In this IDS Working Paper, Robert Chambers (CLTS Knowledge Hub, IDS) and Gregor von Medeazza (UNICEF) argue for a more inclusive framework for thinking about and dealing with undernutrition.  One concept is FTIs (faecally-transmitted infections).  This is designed to avoid the reductionisms of faecal-oral infections, waterborne diseases, and the focus on the diarrhoeas to the neglect of less dramatic and less measurable FTIs especially environmental enteropathy.  A second concept is the 5 As – availability and access which both have oral associations, and absorption, antibodies and allopath

Date: 31 October 2014

Process Evaluation of Tanzania’s National Sanitation Campaign

In 2013, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) commissioned the Sanitation, Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) consortium to design and implement a process evaluation of Phase I (2011-2015) of the Government of Tanzania’s (GoT) National Sanitation Campaign (NSC).

Date: 30 January 2017
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"Chickens don’t use toilets": Why global WASH efforts should start focusing on animal feces

Those who have tried toilet training a pet dog or cat know that it can be a difficult proposition. How about toilet training a flock of 30 chickens?
You’re now asking “Um… why would I want to?” Because in poor countries chickens are everywhere, chickens are pooping wherever they want, and chicken poop is dangerous for young children.

Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya

The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government.

Date: 13 December 2016
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Disease externalities and net nutrition: Evidence from changes in sanitation and child height in Cambodia, 2005–2010

Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years.

Date: 13 December 2016
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Tough Shit: What's the link between diarrhoea and bonded labour?

When we think of bonded labour – the most widespread form of modern slavery - we don't instantly think of diarrhoea, or any health issue for that matter. However, the research that IDS is carrying out on bonded labour in India and Nepal, suggests that diarrhoea and ill-health, poverty, loans and bonded labour are all interlinked.

Have We Substantially Underestimated the Impact of Improved Sanitation Coverage on Child Health?

This PLO article posits that although widely accepted as being one of the most important public health advances of the past hundred years, the contribution that improving sanitation coverage can make to child health is still unclear, especially since the publication of two large studies of sanitation in India which found no effect on child morbidity. The authors hypothesise that the value of sanitation does not come directly from use of improved sanitation but from improving community coverage.

Date: 6 December 2016

Final evaluation of Plan's Pan Africa Programme

Between 2010 and 2016, Plan Netherlands implemented a CLTS programme in 8 countries in Africa: Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Ghana, Sierra Leone and Niger. This programme, although entitled ‘Empowering self-help sanitation of rural and peri-urban communities and schools in Africa’ soon became known as the Pan Africa Programme.

Date: 23 September 2016

Effect of eliminating open defecation on diarrhoeal morbidity: an ecological study of Nyando and Nambale sub-counties, Kenya

Defecating in the open predisposes people to soil transmitted helminthes and diarrhoeal diseases. An estimated 5.6 million Kenyans defecate in the open. Kenya launched a program to eradicate open defecation by 2013 in the rural areas. By end of 2013, only two sub-counties had eliminated open defecation. These are Nambale and Nyando. The study looked at the impact of eradicating open defecation on diarrhea prevalence among children in these two sub-counties.
Date: 9 September 2016
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