In 2013, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) commissioned the Sanitation, Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) consortium to design and implement a process evaluation of Phase I (2011-2015) of the Government of Tanzania’s (GoT) National Sanitation Campaign (NSC).
Sustainable Sanitation at scale and saturation can be achieved only by way of CLTS. Community Participation is the key and behavior change is most crucial aspect. ODF is first step; #ODF 2.0 is the next logical walk.
People who attempt to urinate or defecate in public in Delhi’s wealthier neighbourhoods may soon find themselves loudly interrupted. The city’s municipal council has announced that 28 turbaned, brightly coloured mascots will be deployed across the Lutyens Delhi area to watch for people relieving themselves around railway tracks or slum areas. If the “Swachh Sewaks” (clean attendants) come across any offenders, they will blow a whistle and direct them to the nearest public toilet.
The Indian Governments flagship Swatchh Bharat Mission offers a 12,000 rupee incentive to all Below Poverty Line and certain Above Poverty Line households without a toilet. However, translating the incentive into successful sanitation improvements has been a challenge. Innovative and customisable ways ideas and processes are needed to ensure community buy-in and achieve greater ownership of the process and high rates of toilet use in an environmentally safe manner.
Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-Gramin along the following parameters:
• Allocations and expenditures
• Physical progress of toilets built
• Expenditures incurred under Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities
In addition, this brief reports findings from a fund tracking survey (PAISA) conducted in December 2015. The survey covered close to 7,500 Households, spread across 10 districts in 5 states in India.
Ajit Tiwari is Deputy Commissioner, Swachh Bharat Mission, Madhya Pradesh. Years ago, prior to launch of Swachh Bharat, he was working as BDO of Budhni block in Sehore district, and was exposed to CLTS training. He says everyday he went to the training thinking that he would attend that day only if he found it useful- and ended up attending all five days. To convince himself of the practicality of approach, he started ‘triggering’ techniques in villages himself. Village after village began to become ODF in his district.
Sandeep Kadam, DC Mandi, again demonstrates the criticality of district leadership for change. A district already declared open defecation free, Sandeep has not only continued the momentum, but reenergised it by activating mahila mandals (women groups) across his district. Hailing from Maharashtra, he says the philosophy behind this approach is the teaching of Mahatma Phule – ‘teach a woman, and you reform a family’.
Somalia continues to experience one of the most complex humanitarian crises in the world and is one of the most restrictive and insecure environments for humanitarian actors. There is little evidence to show that approaches conventionally used in humanitarian settings, focused on the delivery of hygiene items and mass communication of messages, have resulted in consistent behaviour change.
On a recent visit to a village in central India, we felt as if we had travelled back in time to the days of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), when toilets were built as a tick-box exercise. Over a hundred concrete stalls with latrine pans had been built in the settlement. We call them concrete stalls instead of toilets: few were functional as they had faulty designs and connections to pits. Only one was in use… well, technically two —one as an actual toilet and the other as a storehouse for electric material.
The budget announcement of 2016 included this – ‘In order to continue this (Swachh Bharat) momentum, priority allocation from Centrally Sponsored Schemes will be made to reward villages that have become free from open defecation’.