behaviour change

Promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low-and middle-income countries

This report by 3ie summarises a systematic review by De Buck and colleagues that examines which promotional approaches are effective in changing handwashing and sanitation behaviour and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such interventions. The study is the first mixed methods systematic review of behaviour change in sanitation and hygiene, drawing on quantitative and qualitative evidence. It shows that CLTS, in comparison with approaches like social marketing and health messaging, is most effective in improving OD behaviour and latrine use.

Date: 28 September 2017

Norms, nudges, or addiction? Understanding drivers for handwashing behavior change.

Handwashing with soap is one of the most effective ways to prevent diseases, but behavior change to increase handwashing remains a challenge. On September 12, 2017, the Global Handwashing Partnership and USAID hosted a webinar that focused on behavior change approaches for handwashing with soap. The webinar gave participants ideas and perspectives to use on Global Handwashing Day and throughout the year.

Date: 27 September 2017

Habit Formation and Rational Addiction: A Field Experiment in Handwashing

Regular handwashing with soap is believed to have substantial impacts on child health in the developing world. Most handwashing campaigns have failed, however, to establish and maintain a regular practice of handwashing. Motivated by scholarship that suggests handwashing is habitual, This study designed, implemented and analyzed a randomized field experiment aimed to test the main predictions of the rational addiction model. To reliably measure handwashing, the researchers developed and produced a novel soap dispenser, within which a time-stamped sensor is embedded.

Date: 27 July 2017

Switching to sanitation: Understanding latrine adoption in a representative panel of rural Indian households

Open defecation, which is still practiced by about a billion people worldwide, is one of the most compelling examples of how place influences health in developing countries. Efforts by governments and development organizations to address the world's remaining open defecation would be greatly supported by a better understanding of why some people adopt latrines and others do not.

Date: 17 July 2017
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Discovering sanitation realities through rural immersions

At the end of last year the CLTS Knowledge Hub heard that the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Indore, in collaboration with UNICEF and the Government of Madhya Pradesh, were sending 630 of their first year management students to spend a week living in 157 open defecation free (ODF) villages. The villages cut across 13 districts in the central Indian State of Madhya Pradesh. Students were asked to verify ODF status of villages through a household survey and early morning and evening inspections of open defecation sites.

Eight lessons from CLTS at scale through local governments in Uganda

This ‘GSF in focus’ case study presents eight lessons learned from the GSF-supported Uganda Sanitation Fund (USF) programme in coordinating, planning, and implementing CLTS at scale through a decentralized government system. The USF is the largest programme of its kind in Uganda. The programme, which began in 2011, is currently implemented by 30 District Local Governments 2 under the overall management of the Ministry of Health. By September 2016, the USF reported helping over three million people live in open defecation free (ODF) environments.

Date: 17 February 2017
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Analysis of behavioral change techniques in CLTS programs

The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases - a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage.

Date: 13 December 2016

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