behaviour change

Eight lessons from CLTS at scale through local governments in Uganda

This ‘GSF in focus’ case study presents eight lessons learned from the GSF-supported Uganda Sanitation Fund (USF) programme in coordinating, planning, and implementing CLTS at scale through a decentralized government system. The USF is the largest programme of its kind in Uganda. The programme, which began in 2011, is currently implemented by 30 District Local Governments 2 under the overall management of the Ministry of Health. By September 2016, the USF reported helping over three million people live in open defecation free (ODF) environments.

Date: 17 February 2017

Analysis of behavioral change techniques in CLTS programs

The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases - a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage.

Date: 13 December 2016

Nudging and Habit Change for Open Defecation: New Tactics from Behavioral Science

This WSP working paper draws on basic scientific findings from psychology, cognitive science, and behavioural economics to propose a framework of 8 System 1 Principles to support the initiation and maintenance of OD behavior change. In doing so, it builds from the general framework advanced in the World Bank Group’s (2015) World Development Report: Mind, Society, and Behavior, which emphasized three core insights from behavioral science, namely that people think (a) automatically, (b) socially and (c) using mental models that channel their decision-making.
Date: 25 October 2016

Can collective action strategies motivate behavior change to reduce open defecation in rural India?

The world’s remaining open defecation is increasingly concentrated in rural India. The Indian government’s efforts to reduce open defecation by providing subsidies for latrine construction have been largely unsuccessful in addressing the problem. It is now clear that behavior change must be the priority if progress on ending open defecation is to be made. While community-led strategies have proven effective in various developing country contexts, there are serious reasons to question whether similar methods can work in rural India.
Date: 24 October 2016

Understanding Determinants of Access to Hygienic Latrines for Rural Households in Vietnam

During 2014 and 2015, three research studies were carried out to examine the drivers and barriers to latrine adoption and the availability of desirable, affordable latrines in rural areas of Vietnam. The findings were used to develop integrated behavior change communication (BCC) and sanitation supply chain strengthening programs in Hoa Binh Province and the Mekong Delta region.

This WSP Learning Note shares insights and lessons.

Date: 20 October 2016

The cultural politics of shit: class, gender and public space in India

In this article Assa Doron and Ira Raja seek to interrogate the cultural, political and economic conditions that generate the crisis of sanitation in India, with its severe implications for the poor and the marginalized. The key question they ask is how to interpret and explain the spectre of ‘open defecation’ in India's countryside and its booming urban centres. The discussion is divided into three parts. Part one examines the cultural interpretation of ‘shitting’ as symbolic action underpinned by ideas of purity, pollution and ‘the body politic’.

Date: 12 September 2016

PhATS Technical Note: Demand Creation in Communities

Across Typhoon Yolanda-affected areas, the Philippines Department of Health (DoH) and Department of Education (DepEd), The League of Mayors and 46 LGUs are working in tandem with UNICEF and its 12 implementing NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) Partners to improve access to and use of sustainable sanitation through a strategy called the Philippines Approach To Total Sanitation (PhATS).

Date: 11 August 2016

Using Social Norms Theory to Strengthen CLTS in Southern Madagascar

This Field Note focuses on the southern region of Madagascar and documents how the region is transitioning from a 100% open defecation to a 100% ODF (Open Defecation Free) region. The southern region is one of the poorest regions in the country and characterized by restrictive, traditional beliefs as well as a rigid hierarchy of power and influence, which contribute towards the failure of development projects in this region.

Date: 2 August 2016


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