Handwashing is a vital part of good sanitation and hygiene. When Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and its aim of ODF (open defecation free) communities are fully understood and put into practice it is clear that handwashing is implicit in the approach. Without addressing handwashing and other hygiene practices, communities can never become fully ODF since CLTS aims to cut all faecal-oral contamination routes. However, in practice, the degree to which handwashing is integrated into triggering and follow up, depends on the quality of facilitation.
Le lavage des mains est une composante cruciale d’une bonne hygiène et d’un bon assainissement. Lorsque le concept d’Assainissement total piloté par la communauté (ATPC) et son objectif de communautés FDAL (fin de la défécation à l’air libre) sont parfaitement compris et mis en pratique, il est clair que le lavage des mains est indissociable de l’approche. Sans s’attaquer au lavage des mains et aux autres pratiques d’hygiène, les communautés ne pourront jamais devenir entièrement FDAL car l’ATPC entend couper toutes les voies de contamination fécale-orale.
La durabilité des latrines est un enjeu crucial de l’ATPC. Les sols sablonneux ou rocheux , les inondations saisonnières ou encore les termites peuvent présenter de graves défis pour les communautés qui ont choisi de s’occuper de leur propre assainissement grâce à l’ATPC et qui optent pour la construction de latrines. Le manuel de l’ATPC identifie le besoin d’approches par conception participative durant des sessions de suivi avec des communautés ayant fait l’objet d’un déclenchement.
Sustainability of latrines is a key issue in CLTS. Sandy or rocky soils, seasonal flooding and termites can present challenges to communities who have taken sanitation into their own hands as a result of CLTS and are building latrines. The CLTS Handbook identifies the need for participatory design approaches during follow-up sessions with triggered communities. Sanitation marketing programmes have also applied participatory design through engaging users and sanitation suppliers to create innovative sanitation technologies.
Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do We Stand? (IWA Publishing 2013, eds Piers Cross and Yolande Coombes) takes stock of progress made by African countries through the AfricaSan process since 2008 and the progress needed to meet the MDG on sanitation by 2015 and beyond. This book addresses priorities which have been identified by African countries as the key elements which need to be addressed in order to accelerate progress.
The Lukenya Notes are a collection of experiences and key recommendations from the IDS meeting of CLTS practitioners held in Lukenya, Nairobi in July 2011, immediately after the AfricaSan3 meeting. The aim of the workshop was to focus on the key challenges we all face in taking CLTS to scale. Insights, case studies and options are clustered by themes which emerged from workshop brainstorming.
This paper draws on the extensive involvement of Kamal Kar with the spread of CLTS in Africa to describe the early stages of the process, to elaborate on its developments and to outline insights into the circumstances and features which have facilitated its rapid spread. Taking a broadly comparative approach which draws on the somewhat earlier experience of the spread of CLTS in Asia, it identifies aspects of the institutionalisation process and circumstances, including key individuals, that have contributed to the success of the approach in Africa.