Research

Challenges of behaviour change in rural north India

Despite large government and NGO programs, despite substantially increased public spending on sanitation, and despite sustained economic growth, open defecation is declining very, very slowly in rural “Hindi heartland” north India. Widespread resistance to using simple latrines in the rural north Indian plains states is a human development crisis and a serious puzzle: this is exactly the place on earth where open defecation is most common and where high population density most raises the human and economic costs of open defecation.

Date: 28 March 2014
Country: 

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Grey Literature Review

The project, Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability, evaluates through a rigorous research program three distinctive strategies to enhance the roles of local actors in CLTS interventions in Kenya, Ghana and Ethiopia. The project, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, aims to learn, capture and share reliable and unbiased information on CLTS approaches and scalability.This grey literature review was prepared by The Water Institute at UNC for Plan International USA as part of the project.

Date: 26 February 2014
Country: 

A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh

Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development
resources, this study seeks to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention,
while others do not.

Date: 26 February 2014
Country: 

An investigation of the effects of a hand washing intervention on health outcomes and school absence using a randomised trial in Indian urban communities

This research study aimed to evaluate how an intervention, which combined hand washing promotion aimed at 5-year-olds with provision of free soap, affected illnesses among the children and their families and children’s school absenteeism. The study monitored illnesses, including diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs), school absences and soap consumption for 41 weeks in 70 low-income communities in Mumbai, India. It showed that direct-contact hand washing interventions aimed at younger school-aged children can affect the health of the whole family.

Date: 26 February 2014
Country: 

Are children in West Bengal shorter than children in Bangladesh?

Children in West Bengal and Bangladesh are presumed to share the same distribution of genetic height potential. In West Bengal they are richer, on average, and are therefore slightly taller. However, when wealth is held constant, children in Bangladesh are taller. This gap can be fully accounted for by differences in open defecation, and especially by open defecation in combination with differences in women’s status and maternal nutrition.

Date: 19 February 2014
Country: 

An untold story of policy failure: the Total Sanitation Campaign in India

The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was a community-led, people-centred, demand-driven and incentive-based programme ideal to address India's rural sanitation crisis, or so it seemed. But policy failed to translate into practice and outcomes were remarkably poor. In the 2011 census data showed 31% sanitation coverage in 2011 (up from 22% in 2001), far from the 68% reported by the Government. The decade has witnessed progress slowing down and the number of rural households without latrines increasing by 8.3 million.

Date: 20 December 2013
Country: 

Growing Tall and Smart with Toilets: Stopping Open Defecation Improves Children’s Height in Cambodia

A new research brief from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), Investing in the Next Generation: Growing Tall and Smart with Toilets, examines how the level of open defecation in a community is associated with shorter children in Cambodia. Key findings highlighted in the research brief are that open defecation is associated with greater stunting at every age, and that it is associated with greater stunting even when the household itself does not openly defecate.

Date: 19 December 2013
Country: 

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