Robert Chambers (March 2009)
Between 2010 and 2016, Plan Netherlands implemented a CLTS programme in 8 countries in Africa: Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Ghana, Sierra Leone and Niger. This programme, although entitled ‘Empowering self-help sanitation of rural and peri-urban communities and schools in Africa’ soon became known as the Pan Africa Programme.
In this article Assa Doron and Ira Raja seek to interrogate the cultural, political and economic conditions that generate the crisis of sanitation in India, with its severe implications for the poor and the marginalized. The key question they ask is how to interpret and explain the spectre of ‘open defecation’ in India's countryside and its booming urban centres. The discussion is divided into three parts. Part one examines the cultural interpretation of ‘shitting’ as symbolic action underpinned by ideas of purity, pollution and ‘the body politic’.
In this paper Plan Netherlands aims to capture and share challenges and lessons learned from a large regional CLTS programme that was implemented in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zambia between 2010 and 2016. Main lessons concern
This paper explores intra-household variations in access to WASH through analysis of baseline data from the Undoing Inequity project in Zambia and Uganda. The purpose of which is to explore whether differences exist between head of household and 'vulnerable' individuals' (disabled, older or chronically ill persons) reports on access and use of WASH at the household level. The results indicate that water indicators reported by the household head eg use of the same water source, showed high levels of agreement between the head of the household and the 'vulnerable' individual.
The USAID/Uganda Strengthening Decentralisation for Sustainability (SDS) Program's WASH component and the Northern Uganda Development of Enhanced Local Governance, Infrastructure and Livelihoods (NUDEILS) Program brough innovative approaches to supplying WASH services and infrastructure through existing Distric Local Governmnet systems in Southwestern and Northern Uganda respectively. The SDS Program's WASH component focused on increasing the flow of resources, both human and financial, into existing District programs.
If CLTS is to eliminate open defecation, issues of disability inclusion must be fully addressed. Research in Malawi aimed to discover if WASH practitioners, after a short training, could implement CLTS in a more inclusive way, and whether this made a difference to disabled peple in the community in terms of access to sanitation and hygiene faclities. After a three-day training, CLTS implementers designed and implemented a CLTS+ Action Plan, in which additional triggering activities were introduced, and more attention paid to households with disabled and older people post-triggering.
In 1986 the Government of India launched the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), the first nationwide sanitation programme. In 2001, the CRSP was overhauled with the introduction of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC). In 2007, the TSC was renamed Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA). NBA envisages providing individual household toilets to the Below Poverty Line and Identified Above Poverty Line households and providing school and community level sanitation.