Robert Chambers (March 2009)
The majority of the sanitation programs/projects have been mainly supply driven, often with full direct household subsidy, and with little or no community participation. Toilet technologies were predetermined with little understanding of user preferences. This has led to millions of dollars of investments in sanitation not yielding the desired results, as many of the facilities provided were unused or used for other activities.
Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor.
Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as SouthAsia and sub-SaharanAfrica.
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. UNC used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation.
UNC used a cluster-randomized field trial to evaluate training natural leaders (NLs) as an addition to a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention in Ghana. NLs are motivated community members who influence their peers’ behaviours during CLTS. The outcomes were latrine use and quality, which were assessed from surveys and direct observation. From October 2012, Plan International Ghana (Plan) implemented CLTS in 60 villages in three regions in Ghana.
This UNICEF review is aimed as a timely contribution to overall knowledge on the provision of equitable and sustainable sanitation and hygiene for all – highlighting what has worked, and issues that still need attention, especially in the area of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS).
The CLTS Knowledge Hub is excited to announce the launch of its new book Sustainable Sanitation for all: experiences, challenges and innovations, published by Practical Action.