Robert Chambers (March 2009)
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) has been proved to be a successful strategy for tackling the challenge of open defecation in poor rural communities across Africa and Asia. This article explores whether a similar approach can be used in peri-urban and urban areas to help co-produce sanitation facilities and services with inputs from communities, duty bearers, and other sanitation stakeholders. It is argued that an urban CLTS approach does not mean a copy and paste of tools and methods which have proved successful in the rural environment but following a set of similar principles.
Endline Assessment of UNICEF's PhATS programme in Haiyan-affected areas of the Philippines.
Gender equality, serving the most vulnerable, and addressing the particular needs of women and girls are among the core principles of the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF). Since its launch in 2008 by the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), the GSF has been committed to these principles in the sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programmes it supports. However, challenges have been identified in sufficiently addressing these principles, such as disaggregating data by gender to assess progress.
Between 2010 and 2016, Plan Netherlands implemented a CLTS programme in 8 countries in Africa: Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Ghana, Sierra Leone and Niger. This programme, although entitled ‘Empowering self-help sanitation of rural and peri-urban communities and schools in Africa’ soon became known as the Pan Africa Programme.