Robert Chambers (March 2009)
This study analysed open defecation trends among the 47 counties in Kenya, newly created in 2013.
The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases - a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage.
The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government.
Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years.
This study was carried out to determine the magnitude to which the CLTS approach leads to improved sanitation and its potential threats to groundwater quality and health of people. A comparative study was carried out between eight CLTS and non CLTS villages to measure the outcomes of CLTS approach. Water samples were collected to assess the level of contamination in groundwater sources near pits in villages where CLTS approach was adopted. Semi structured interviews, focused group discussions (FGDs) and transit walks were used for data collection.
It is widely perceived that city-wide sanitation planning can enable coordinated improvements in efforts to achieve universal access to sustainable sanitation services in urban contexts in developing countries. However, it has been observed that city sanitation planning is not always effective and does not always lead to (in part or in full) sustainable and equitable outcomes. Indeed the planning process may or may not result in, or inform, implementation. This observation resonates with existing reviews and critiques of sanitation planning over the past decades (Kennedy-Walker et al.
When we think of bonded labour – the most widespread form of modern slavery - we don't instantly think of diarrhoea, or any health issue for that matter. However, the research that IDS is carrying out on bonded labour in India and Nepal, suggests that diarrhoea and ill-health, poverty, loans and bonded labour are all interlinked.
The Indian Governments flagship Swatchh Bharat Mission offers a 12,000 rupee incentive to all Below Poverty Line and certain Above Poverty Line households without a toilet. However, translating the incentive into successful sanitation improvements has been a challenge. Innovative and customisable ways ideas and processes are needed to ensure community buy-in and achieve greater ownership of the process and high rates of toilet use in an environmentally safe manner.