Country papers

Lessons Learned: Hybrid CLTS Approach to Improving Sanitation

USAID’s Ghana Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (GWASH) Project aimed to improve rural sanitation access through the provision of household latrines to households in targeted communities. In the beginning of the project, GWASH used a “high-subsidy” approach for household latrine provision, providing households with a 60 percent subsidy per latrine. It was in this vein that GWASH aimed to meet its project target of constructing 4,680 household latrines over the course of a four-year period.

Date: 6 April 2017

Assessment of the operational status of the Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan 2011

This paper assesses the operational status of Nepal’s Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan 2011 in which the Government set the target of an ODF Nepal by 2017. The WASH sector policies, Master Plan, studies, field level activities and opinion of sector experts and stakeholders were reviewed for this assessment.

Date: 29 March 2017

Progress on CLTSH: Findings from a national review of rural sanitation in Ethiopia

A 2015-16 survey of CLTSH across 8 Regions of Ethiopia has found that open defecation continues to reduce across the country, now estimated at 32%. Much of this coverage remains ‘unimproved’ or basic, and the next big challenge, whilst continuing to accelerate progress, is converting this coverage to ‘improved’ or safely managed sanitation.
Whilst the implementation of CLTSH remains strong, the study findings summarised in this UNICEF WASH Learning Note suggest there are some key implementation adjustments which could improve the uptake of improved sanitation.

Date: 5 January 2017

Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin Budget Brief

Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-Gramin along the following parameters:
• Allocations and expenditures
• Physical progress of toilets built
• Expenditures incurred under Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities

In addition, this brief reports findings from a fund tracking survey (PAISA) conducted in December 2015. The survey covered close to 7,500 Households, spread across 10 districts in 5 states in India.

Date: 6 December 2016

Can collective action strategies motivate behavior change to reduce open defecation in rural India?

The world’s remaining open defecation is increasingly concentrated in rural India. The Indian government’s efforts to reduce open defecation by providing subsidies for latrine construction have been largely unsuccessful in addressing the problem. It is now clear that behavior change must be the priority if progress on ending open defecation is to be made. While community-led strategies have proven effective in various developing country contexts, there are serious reasons to question whether similar methods can work in rural India.
Date: 24 October 2016

SAREP Botswana CLTS Summary Report

USAID's SAREP (Southern Africa Regional Environment Programme) has been operating a Community Led Total Sanitation Program in Botswana since 2012, having started in Shakawe with a CLTS Facilitator training for members of the community.

This document gives  a summary of activities, outcomes and learning as well as recommendations for the way forward.

Date: 23 September 2016


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