Country papers

Progress on CLTSH: Findings from a national review of rural sanitation in Ethiopia

A 2015-16 survey of CLTSH across 8 Regions of Ethiopia has found that open defecation continues to reduce across the country, now estimated at 32%. Much of this coverage remains ‘unimproved’ or basic, and the next big challenge, whilst continuing to accelerate progress, is converting this coverage to ‘improved’ or safely managed sanitation.
Whilst the implementation of CLTSH remains strong, the study findings summarised in this UNICEF WASH Learning Note suggest there are some key implementation adjustments which could improve the uptake of improved sanitation.

Date: 5 January 2017

Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin Budget Brief

Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-Gramin along the following parameters:
• Allocations and expenditures
• Physical progress of toilets built
• Expenditures incurred under Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities

In addition, this brief reports findings from a fund tracking survey (PAISA) conducted in December 2015. The survey covered close to 7,500 Households, spread across 10 districts in 5 states in India.

Date: 6 December 2016

Can collective action strategies motivate behavior change to reduce open defecation in rural India?

The world’s remaining open defecation is increasingly concentrated in rural India. The Indian government’s efforts to reduce open defecation by providing subsidies for latrine construction have been largely unsuccessful in addressing the problem. It is now clear that behavior change must be the priority if progress on ending open defecation is to be made. While community-led strategies have proven effective in various developing country contexts, there are serious reasons to question whether similar methods can work in rural India.
Date: 24 October 2016

SAREP Botswana CLTS Summary Report

USAID's SAREP (Southern Africa Regional Environment Programme) has been operating a Community Led Total Sanitation Program in Botswana since 2012, having started in Shakawe with a CLTS Facilitator training for members of the community.

This document gives  a summary of activities, outcomes and learning as well as recommendations for the way forward.

Date: 23 September 2016

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Nine years of scale and innovation in Bangladesh

Between 2006 and 2015, the BRAC WASH programme in Bangladesh has helped over 39 million people gain access to hygienic latrines and 2.3 million people gain access to safe water across 250 sub-districts. It has helped to bring about a social transformation in areas where it works, with significant progress on rural sanitation particularly for the poorest families. Success has been achieved over a nine year period not only in the provision of hygienic household latrines, but in their use by all members of the family, and to a lesser extent in good hygiene practices such as handwashing.

Date: 5 September 2016

Protocole pour l'evaluation et la certification de la fin de defecation a l'air libre (Mali)

Au Mali, la défécation à l’air libre est pratiquée par 19% de la population en milieu rural (JMP, Rapport 2013). De plus, seulement 14% de la population rurale ont accès à un assainissement amélioré et 53% de cette même population rurale ont accès à une source d’eau améliorée (JMP 2013). Avec ces couvertures et vu la croissance démographique, le Mali ne pourra pas atteindre les cibles des OMD en ce qui concerne le WASH.

Date: 18 August 2016

WASH Pathway of Change after Yolanda - One Year On

Embedded in the Philippines National Sanitation Roadmap, PhATS (Philippines Approach to Total Sanitation) was developed in a comprehensive governmental consultation process led by the WASH cluster following the devastating impact of Typhoon Yolanda/Hayan affecting hundreds of thousands of people in 2013. It provides a holistic systemic planning and implementation framework not only focusing on basic sanitation with an incremental phased Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) component reaching out to about a million affected people.

Date: 11 August 2016


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